Boy Scouts -- Model of Masonic Subversion?

August 22, 2009


scouting.jpgby Henry Makow Ph.D.


The Boy Scouts of America
is rare among major institutions in banning homosexuals, atheists and agnostics as leaders. In a decadent age, the BSA is unique in upholding God, country and traditional values.

With 1.6 million members & 470,000 leaders in 50,000 packs, it appears to be an incredible force for good.  But how many genuine forces for good are there in this world? 

Like most major institutions, the Boy Scouts appears to have been subverted by Freemasonry, which has a hidden agenda of promoting homosexuality and denying God.

(Freemasonry is empowered by cabalist central banking families who wish to redefine reality and hijack mankind. Evidence of their power is the modern discomfort with using the term "God" which denotes the natural and moral order, truth and ultimate reality.)

Scouting's national honor society "recognizing Boy Scouts who best exemplify the Scout Oath and Law in their daily lives" is a Masonic secret society called the "Order of the Arrow." It has more than 180,000 members in "lodges" affiliated with more than 300 BSA local councils.
 
The Boy Scouts must ensure that their commendable work does not provide cover & recruits for the Masonic agenda.

First, let's look at the commendable goals. The BSA web site proclaims:  "That Boy Scouts also has traditional values, like requiring youth to do their "duty to God" and be "morally straight" is nothing to be ashamed of and should not be controversial. No court case has ever held that Boy Scouts discriminate unlawfully, and it is unfortunate here that anyone would characterize Boy Scouts' constitutionally protected right to hold traditional values as 'discriminatory.'  That is just name-calling."

The "Scout Law" teaches youths to be "trustworthy, loyal, helpful, friendly, courteous, kind, obedient, cheerful, thrifty, brave, clean, and reverent."

It defines God as  "the ruling and leading power in the universe" to whom we are grateful for "favors and blessings."  It maintains that "Boy Scouts believe that homosexual conduct is not compatible with the aims and purposes of Scouting and that a known or avowed homosexual does not present a desirable role model for the youth in the Scouting program."

TOO GOOD TO BE TRUE?

These are brave words for an organization that was probably founded by a homosexual to "scout" fresh talent for the British Empire's pedophile elite.

The homosexual inclinations of Scout Founder Robert Baden Powell (1857-1941) have been noted by two recent biographers.   He liked being with young boys, especially if they were skinny dipping.

Although married with three children, he was probably a homosexual. His father died when he was three-years-old. Subsequently, Robert was raised by his mother, "a strong woman who was determined that her children would succeed." Baden-Powell would say of her in 1933 "The whole secret of my getting on, lay with my mother."

Although some Freemasons deny he was a member, lodges as far away as South Africa, Australia and New Zealand are named in his honor. He rose to the rank of Lieutenant General and fought with distinction in Britain's colonial wars subduing Zulus and Boers. His cohorts, from Lord Kitchener to King Edward VII were homosexuals, Freemasons and debauchees.  

His gravestone bears a circle with a dot in the center, which is the trail sign for "Going home", or "I have gone home."  This is also a symbol of the Illuminati, representing penis and vagina.

THE ORDER OF THE ARROW

Lucifer recruits mankind using a combination of deception and seduction. Freemasonry is the Church of Lucifer, which is the real "religion" of (post-Enlightenment) Western "civilization." It operates under many banners: Liberalism, Socialism, Zionism, Communism, Fascism, Feminism and "gay rights." 

Like all of the above, Freemasonry is a secret society, i.e. the membership is deceived as to the true agenda. The lower three "Blue Degrees" are fed platitudes about charity and making good men better. But, in reality, only the corruptible advance. Our whole society is based on this model which explains why our leaders, both political and cultural, have abandoned us.

Thus, it is quite likely that the Boy Scouts of America represent the innocent Blue Degrees. It is possible that "The Order of the Arrow" represents a recruitment pool for Freemasonry and ultimately other things.

John Salza is a former 32 degree Freemason and the author of the book "Freemasonry Unmasked." He has written an essay about the OA entitled "Freemasonry has Infiltrated the Boy Scouts." The OA was founded in 1915 by two 32 degree Freemasons and its rituals are patterned on Masonic rituals. Both have three degrees; both are organized into lodges, both rituals seek esoteric spiritual knowledge and illumination. Candidates are conducted around the lodge while bound by a rope.

 Salza writes:"These rituals--which include a blood covenant are being conferred upon innocent boy scouts...and are harming their souls. [This information] comes from a scout who has experienced demonic spiritual manifestations after his initiation into OA."

America's youths are being inducted into an occult secret society by stealth means. Scouts and Masons will deny there is anything wrong but this only proves their gullibility and venality. The BSA is doing the exact opposite of what it claims.


CONCLUSION  


What is happening in the Boy Scouts is happening in society at large. Churches, political parties, the YMCA, the media, schools --no institution is immune. 

Mankind is satanically possessed, and is being inducted into a satanic cult through sex, violence, money, drugs, secret societies or media-induced panic or psychosis. Movies today are mostly mindless killing and mayhem, apocalyptic catastrophe and pornographic sadism.  

The Illuminati (the highest rung of Cabalistic Freemasonry)  intends to degrade mankind and deliver us to Lucifer as Tribute. This is what they mean by "change." They spit in the face of God and much of mankind seems only too willing to go along.

---
Letter from a mother:

I just read your article on the scouts/ freemasons/ order of the arrow.
 
I appreciate that the information is out there. I found your article after doing some research on it, when my son was invited to be part of the order of the arrow. I had a bad feeling about it, because of the "lodge" issue. When I looked into it, I accidentally got into a boy scout password protected site, and obtained a syllabus regarding the origins of the Order of the arrow, and scripts from original ceremonies.
 
These included "blood oaths", later changed to a verbal oath; it included sort of a baptism ritual and clearly stated to "cleanse of evil and selfishness" and many other things that I consider demonic.
 
I brought these to our Baptist preacher, and he validated my concerns. I have since left the items with the Lutheran ministers from the church which sponsors our scout troop. I'm curious as to what they will say, but I don't have the confidence that they will actually see anything wrong with it.
 
however, my son will not be joining the Order of the Arrow.... and we are reconsidering his membership in the boy scouts.
 
Keep up the good work.
 

March 30, 2010 --  Boy Scouts Sued for Allowing Sex Abuse   
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Comments for "Boy Scouts -- Model of Masonic Subversion?"

Charles said (August 26, 2009):

I'm not sure what to make of this article. I hold to the belief that the BSA is still, overall, a force of good. However, I will say that the natural inclination of evil is to attempt to penetrate anything and everything that is good in order to subvert it from within and redirect it. The more influential or powerful the good entity the more that evil will target it for infiltration and subversion. Evil likes nothing better than to hijack something that was created to be a force of good. It is not infrequent that good people or good institutions are successfully taken over by evil influence. This is especially true if there are innocent adolescents involved.

Sometimes things work the other way around. E.g., the evil Left today is angry that Christmas was originally a pagan holiday and leftists try to discredit Christmas on that basis. They want us to again start calling it Winter Solstice. Christianity hijacked a number of things and converted it to good. This may upset evil more than anything else.

This is all part of the perpetual struggle between the forces of good and evil. Sometimes evil gets the upper hand, other times the good gets the upper hand. At any rate, it is a struggle that we must always fight. Evil wants us to relax and either embrace it or accept it. Evil uses tricks and con games in that attempt. But we have to resist that temptation. As it has been said, evil wins when good people do nothing.

Thanks for bringing attention to much of the evil in the world. I don't agree with everything you say but you tend to focus on the pinnacle of evil and more people need to see that perspective.


GS said (August 25, 2009):

I was an eagle scout. I worked as a professional scouter, for four summers, while growing up, and went through all phases of the Boy Scouts EXCEPT Order of the Arrow. For some reason, the troop I was in would not elect me for the OA, year after year. When I sensed the neglect that my troop master was giving me, after a few years with the troop, I went free lance, working at camp, and getting merit badges without anyones sponsorship. I became an eagle scout on my own. After I had attained eagle, in a fit of embarrassment, the scout master, whose two sons had bottomed out at star and life, asked me if I would like to be inducted into OA that year. I told him 1) it has to be voted on and there is nobody in the troop who will vote for me (to which he said, "It can be arranged".) 2) I do not need it, nor do I want it. 3) I work there and the staff would "kill me" in the initiation process.

As a post script to this weird occurrence, years later when my nephew became an eagle scout, his mother pinned my original silver eagle on his chest. My old scoutmaster (where do they get the "master" part of this?) was at the ceremony. He would not look at me or talk to me. Same with my uncle who was in fact a 33rd degree Mason. I used to wonder about these weird things and what was going on that I did not know about. While reading your article, I could feel that little chord being strummed inside of me that I was not imagining anything. I probably upset a lot of people by not going through any kind of sponsorship to become and eagle scout and was beholden to no one for it. I think I surprised a lot of people also. At my awards ceremony, the district scouter was hard pressed to say anything to me about anything and there was more than one awkward moment between me, the scouters, and my family. Nobody could handle it gracefully because they could not pat themselves on the back for making me an eagle scout.

I think the people who chewed you out do not have a clear picture about what they were doing in the scouts and a lot of weird stuff phase shifted by them without their observing it. As you point out in your writing many times, people do not pay attention, and hence, the bad guys get away with everything. But I noticed this little glitch in my boy scout training, acted upon it to distance myself from the pack, and never looked back. Thank you for filling in some spaces that I have pondered about for years.


Chris said (August 25, 2009):

I read all the letters you posted, and I have to admire you for doing that in the name of discovering the truth, despite all the grief you are getting from some Eagle Scout types who cannot get it that their own experience in their own scout troop, however pure, may not mirror that of everyone else. You certainly weren't condemning all boy scout organizations. BTW, their definition of God certainly does sounds a lot like the masonic definition of God.

As appearances DO matter, the very fact that so many scout troops are church-sponsored, and priests are allowed to become scoutmasters, is
indicative of very poor judgment, at the very least.

A few minutes ago, I heard Rayellan Allan of rumormillnews say that her former CIA husband, Gunther Russbacher, brought her to a boy scout camp in New Mexico and told her that some of the boy scouts at were programmed as assassins.


Robert said (August 25, 2009):

1. I have long noticed that boy-scouting is particularly appealing to military men and is convenient as a military recruiting tool. Many boys are told that to be an Eagle Scout is viewed very favorably when you enlist. I suspect that it is. The association of uniforms, badges, medals, and manly virtues with military service may lead to profound disillusionment with -- or profound denial of -- the horrors of real battlefields.

2. I have also noticed that the popularity of scouting in Britain (1908) and the US (1910) coincided nicely with the need for imperial cannon fodder six years later (1914 in Britain, 1917 USA). Surely the "God and Country" training was helpful in inducing good-hearted and patriotic young boys to join up and fill positions as junior officers . . . sadly, the most likely to kill and die in good conscience.

3. There is also the old saw that any all-male organization tends toward homosexuality. While there may be some truth in that, we must acknowledge that if that is case, it might be more attributable to natural human weakness -- the "Fall of Man," if you will -- that Satanists may exploit, rather than exactly attributing it to an "agenda." Maybe I'm splitting hairs here, but I think there is a real difference as to who is controlling the will: the sinner himself, or the devil himself.

4. As an assistant scoutmaster, I was inducted into the Order of the Arrow as an adult, and attained the second degree (Brotherhood) of the three that I know of. I noticed at the time that there were elements of the induction ceremony that were similar to what I had heard existed in masonic rituals (handshakes, lights, whispered admonitions, surprises), but I must also say that the experience and the content were positive. As other writers have said, it was all about responsibility and service. If I had any misgivings -- and I do -- it is simply that the process of induction into a "secret" order might be used to condition a young man to become part of something that is ultimately far less innocent. Bingo.

But. Let us not pound too hard on the Luciferian-Masonic Complex and its probable homosexual agenda. Quite apart from that, participation in the National-Military complex with its mass-killing agenda is surely equally deadly, both for the individual and for the human family. This, in my opinion, is the 800 pound gorilla in the room that few care to talk about.

In my personal opinion, two of the fundamental problems in Western life and culture -- Christian or not-Christian -- are (1) the love of money (which since the days of Babylon and the introduction of usury has been debt-driven, fraudulent, and enslaving) and (2) the love of violence (either personal and individualistic, or group-sanctioned, or state-sanctioned)

No doubt that both of these are advanced by Satan -- Christ and the Apostles said so. From my reading of your posts, I think that you basically agree. (By the way, your writings are always beneficial--I'm glad to have discovered you about four years ago.)

Let us pray for the Boy Scouts -- they are, like many organizations, a mixed bag filled with all sorts of people with all sorts of agendas.

Robert


JD said (August 24, 2009):

The Boy Scouts are a bastion of opposition to the homosexual agenda and they stand for everything that is and has been good about America. They made a big difference in my life and in my father's life. I went on to become an Army Officer and a lawyer, largely because of people and ideas that I first encountered in Boy Scouts. My Troop, Troop 397 of the Milwaukee County Council, was sponsored by my grade school and parish, St. Eugene Catholic in Fox Point, Wisconsin. One can scarcely imagine a group more fiercely antagonistic to Freemasonry than the Catholic Church; Our Pastor, Fr. Mackin was staunchly opposed to everything about masonry.

All of the Scouts in a troop get to vote on the honor of election to the Order of the Arrow - and my own election was one of the highest honors, in my own estimation, that I've ever received. I was tapped out and inducted into the Order of the Arrow in 1968 at Indian Mound Reservation in Waukesha County, where my father had camped out as a Boy Scout in the 1920"s.. The entire focus of the 24 hour experience was service to other scouts and to humanity in general. Yes, there are some secret parts, but the whole emphasis is on self sacrifice and the highest of virtues. One sleeps alone for a night under the stars and one subsists then for the entire next day on little food, while working hard to repair and maintain a scouting facility (in my case, repairing roads and erecting signs that had fallen into disrepair), and, to promote reflection, one is not permitted to speak during the whole of this period. When I subsequently went for weekends with the Order of the Arrow, it was also to repair camping facilities in Fall, after they had been used by hundreds of scouts over the Summer, to get the facilities ready for harsh Wisconsin winters and to maintain them after use. It was one of the noblest things I was ever involved in, and quite morally pure. Volunteerism for the welfare of others at its best.

I've read extensively on masonic ritual as I became interested in the subject over the years - Starting with Duncan's Ritual and various words of Alfred Pike, and I think I understand what goes on in the first three degrees pretty well, and I've read much about the next 28 degrees. The only resemblance that I can discern is that OA candidates are tied to one another after they are tapped out, or formally proposed as candidates at the very beginning of the 24 hour induction period. That's it. Yes, there is a handshake and a saying, but it has no more affinity with masonry than the handshake and saying of the Knights of Columbus or any one of scores of fraternities and societies. Point blank, there is simply no connection between the practice of the Order of the Arrow and masonry whatsoever.

I honestly think your paranoia has run away with you. You have tarnished the name of very honest, very idealistic, and very good people by connecting them with things masonic through misinformation - in fact through lies. These people are among the finest and noblest I've met in 55 years. You owe all of them an apology.


Thomas said (August 24, 2009):

Read your article regarding Boy Scouts of America with interest, and saw little I could recognize. I've been affiliated with Scouting since a Cub Scout. I was a Boy Scout and Explorer, and an Assistant Post Advisor. I completed the highest level of training in 1983. I've been Assistant Scoutmaster and Scoutmaster with several Troops.
Regarding the response about non-SM boys not advancing, be assured that any Scout who participates and completes the requirements advances. If they do the work, they earn the award. Period. The biggest difference is that those who only participate sporadically don't advance as fast. Scouts with parents who volunteer participate more regularly. In that way it's no different from football or chess club.

No Scouter has the authority to add or remove any requirements--they're universal, they're published openly. For Scouts with a particular limit or disability, substitutions for requirements can be made with approval.
Protection of the Scout is paramount, and the registration process requires the Scout family to review and understand the policies including practical rules: two-deep leadership, no man-boy pairing up, etc., which are published and provided every Scout and every parent. The "Buddy System" assures that the Scout takes a fellow Scout even to meet a merit badge counselor. All in the open, nothing hidden. Still, once in a while a skunk slips in, but it's very, very rare. In my lifetime, out of many hundreds of volunteers, I've known two perverts affiliated with Scouting for a short while before they were discovered, convicted and imprisoned for very lengthy terms. Obviously they may never affiliate with Scouting again.

Concerning OA--it's a honorary camping fraternity dedicated to serving the camping program of Scouts and the communities that support Scouting. The candidates are chosen by their fellow Scouts for their accomplishment and leadership in Scout camping. The initiations include personal reflection on healthy values and cheerful service. The activities include conservation of trails and facilities at Scout camps, assisting in disaster and extreme community needs, teaching outdoor skills to other Scouts,and promoting healthy environmental awareness and personal fitness when hiking, camping, and in other outdoor activities.

I know a few Masons in Scouting. Also a couple of Kiwanis members, some Lions Clubbers, dozens of Baptists and Catholics and Lutherans and BornAgains, there's a whole Troop of Mormons in our town. One of our families are Budhists. The Religious Awards have discreet programs for virtually every religion and denomination. We even have some Republicans and (gasp) a few Democrats.

I'm sure that in some areas more Masons may participate in Scouting, but they have no more authority in the program than I have.
Hope those of you with unhappy experiences can heal from it, and don't lose too much time conflating suspicions with a lack of personal knowledge of the program into an imagination of conspiracy which just doesn't exist. (The more you try to keep a secret, the more obvious it becomes--ever notice that?)

I appreciate your concern, and hope to dispell your suspicious which I feel are unrealistic.


Ty said (August 23, 2009):

Read your article about the boy scouts. Would you consider(after investigating) promoting a alternative to the boyscouts for your readers? They are called the Royal Rangers. Check it out

http://www.royalrangersinternational.com/


D said (August 23, 2009):

I am writing from Scotland were Masonry has been and still is endemic. When visiting a stand of the local Boys Brigade 100th anniversary I was told by a former member that Baden Powell in his youth was a Boys Brigade member and modeled his Scouting on the BB. When one realises that the BB was and still is heavily sponsored - run? -by Scottish Freemasonry it should come as no surprise that Freemasons' involvement with boys goes back a very long way indeed.


Glenn said (August 23, 2009):

Your self-righteous extremism and arrogant unwarranted confidence that, as a Christian, you have a superior view of morality that should be imposed on others is unAmerican. If you studied history at all to get your Ph.d., which is probably a lie of a narcissistic old man, you would know that your typically Christian superiority complex has led to war after war, bigotry, racism, genocide, torture, and tyranny in general. You would also know that when people like you get out hand, they are made to pay dearly for their arrogance. This is the the spirit which created America and gives you the freedom to spew your haughty and inane views. But be aware that freedom of speech does not equate with freedom from the responsibility for what you say. I would appreciate it if you would do us both a favor and get out of my country; you dishonor it. Go live with your extremist brethren in Saudi Arabia or some other religiously fanatic Monarchy.
--

Glenn,

I am no a Christian except in recognizing the truth of Christ's message, which even a Muslim can. . You'll be relieved to learn I live in Canada. -henry


David said (August 23, 2009):

It is one of those ironies of humankind, is it not? There is an interesting book called "The Sewing Circle" that deals with Hollywood homosexuality and how the movie industry has hoodwinked middle america with their gods and goddesses many of whom are homosexual. James Dean, Rock Hudson, Tab Hunter, and, alas, Nelson Eddy, to name a few from the early days. They no doubt abound in great profusion today.

"Lavender weddings" were arranged for these boys with, usually, lesbian ex-wives of studio execs to give the delusion that there was, indeed, wedded bliss in Hollywood. In this book the author delves into Victorian England and talks about Baden Powell. His wife mentions in a letter or diary that her husband prefers his boys to her. It is an interesting world for those of us who can see beyond the deception, is it not?

I think I mentioned in an earlier email that homosexuals are able to perform the dirty deeds of mayhem because they have no innate love of, or desire to protect, women and children. I presume that is why the worst butchers of history are revealed to have some sort of “inadequacy.”

I really appreciate your work and look forward to it each week.


Rob said (August 23, 2009):

You should learn more by honest study regarding the Boy Scouts of America. As some people say,
a little knowledge can be a dangerous thing, and in this instance, you stand out like a loose cannon, seeing conspirators behind every rock.

Your conjectures about the Order of the Arrow are as hollow and fanciful as those of the latest gaggle of Freemason fiction authors. The documents by John Salza are, to be truthful, both paranoid and dangerous.

Is he indeed 'a former 32 degree mason' AND a Catholic? I smell an agent provocateur. He willingly uses writings of masonic historians as source references. In short, you seem to have believed absolute crap.

The BSA and OA no longer have structures or mythologies beholden in any way to Freemasony. It exists for the boys and their parents and families, with a few scouting geeks thrown in for measure. It flies under radar as much as possible within this world's communist and feminist milieu. If I were to take your attacks
seriously enough, I would issue a scathing rebuttal. For now, however, I will just be able to name you a limp-dick.

I have been involved with Scouting on and off for 45 years, as a Life Scout, Explorer and Assistant Scoutmaster.

I was Order of the Arrow Brotherhood. I help with my own son's troop. I am a Catholic. I am a geologist.


Bob said (August 23, 2009):

Your are pretty spot on about the Masons, the Public Service in New South Wales Australia is riddled with them! I served in the Fire Brigade for over 31 years and couldn't believe the nepotism that goes on, many years ago a Superintendent invited me to join the Fire Brigade (Phoenix Lodge) as he said "it would help my career path for promotions". I knocked it back as I felt uncomfortable about getting an advantage over other Officers.

Recently five senior Officers were busted for fraud ALL were members of the Lodge, the punishments they received were minimial. The fraud made it to the media, one top rating Sydney 2GB radio host made the matter public plus incidents of sexual assualts on young probationary firefighters.

I really enjoyed being a firefighter but I am glad to be retired and away from Lodge Fire Brigade.


Richard said (August 23, 2009):

The founder of BSA was Daniel Carter Beard. He'd started a organization along similar lines to Baden Powell a few years before Powell, and the story goes he liked Powell's version he merged his "Boy Pioneers" with British International. However, BSA has it's own 'provincial' characteristics.

http://web.archive.org/web/20071223095133/freemasonry.bcy.ca/biography/beard_d/beard_d.html

As you see from the link Beard was a Freemason. My take on these orgs is that word came down from the Capstone that a boys organization should be created to acquaint youth in Britain, America, and the Commonwealth with the basics of military life. Any organization created by serious Freemasons is going to have a outer organization of members with a central core 'order'.

I was in Boy Scouts for about a year. The scout master and adults involved were Masons, and their sons piled up the merit badges and quickly became Eagle scouts. This was during the peak of the Viet Nam war about the time of the Tet Offensive when Scouts was a pretty 'macho' emphasis organization promoting competition between members, and camping trips that were a bit more like army boot camp that nature hikes.

Still, these aren't especially bad experiences for boys. Suburban boys were soft, lazy, and undisciplined. We got yelled at during hikes where the leaders would want to cover ground and we'd want to enjoy the scenery, though we did feel a bit stronger afterwards for having been pushed to physical exertion. At times the behavior seemed a bit stupid to me with the competition and macho antics but I generally felt more masculine returning from those weekends in the state parks.

After a year it became obvious that myself and the other non-Masonic boys weren't going to get advancement, and my neighborhood buddies got tired of seeing the seemingly unmerited favor and advancement heaped on the Mason's sons, so we dropped out.

I don't know how it works now, but what I'm saying is that the way Masonry worked, boys never were approached to be recruited into that unless their fathers were Masons, or they were sponsored by a Mason. Those who were tended to be a several 'elite' organizations: varsity sports, Civil Air Patrol, JROTC (military - 'junior reserve officer training corps', in the US a pre-military training club for high school age students).
But that only applied to my social 'class'. On the other side of town where boys were going to private schools like the Episcopalian academies they had more elite organizations - less military and more about business and political leadership.


John said (August 23, 2009):

Baden-Powell (22 Feb. 1857–8 Jan. 1941) joined the army in 1876 (21). Despite doing badly at school he came second in the army exams, bypassed the officer training, soon became an Honorary Colonel in India and eventually become a Major-General (43). In 1896 Baden-Powell was returning from the Ashanti expedition on West Africa’s Gold Coast (later Ghana) with the Ashanti Star (1895–96) under his belt. He located two 16-year-old Irish soldiers, accused them of cowardice, tied their hands behind their backs, told everyone he was going to interrogate them, cleared the carriage, sodomised the two bound 16-year-old Irish soldiers, then shot them both in the back of the head, dead. Robert Baden-Powell was 39. At first Robert Baden-Powell was awarded the Matabele Campaign Medal (1896–97) but was then banished from England. He clawed his way back into society, was promoted to the highest ranking secular position in England, then elevated to Sir in 1909, Baronet in 1922, Baron in 1929 and then Lord the same year.---Stalin's British Training by Greg Hallett


Henry Makow received his Ph.D. in English Literature from the University of Toronto in 1982. He welcomes your comments at