In the 1950's and 1960's, the military
conducted 239 "germ-warfare"
tests in US cities.
By Kevin Loria
San Francisco's fog is famous, especially in the summer, when weather conditions combine to create the characteristic cooling blanket that sits over the Bay Area.
But one fact many may not know about San Francisco's fog is that in 1950, the US military conducted a test to see whether it could be used to help spread a biological weapon in a "simulated germ-warfare attack." This was just the start of many such tests around the country that would go on in secret for years.
But, as she writes, it was also "one of the largest offences of the Nuremberg Code since its inception."
The code stipulates that "voluntary, informed consent" is required for research participants, and that experiments that might lead to death or disabling injury are unacceptable.
The unsuspecting residents of San Francisco certainly could not consent to the military's germ-warfare test, and there's good evidence that it could have caused the death of at least one resident of the city, Edward Nevin, and hospitalized 10 others.
This is a crazy story; one that seems like it must be a conspiracy theory. An internet search will reveal plenty of misinformation and unbelievable conjecture about these experiments. But the core of this incredible tale is documented and true.
'A SUCCESSFUL BIOLOGICAL WARFARE ATTACK'
It all began in late September 1950, when over a few days, a Navy vessel used giant hoses to spray a fog of two kinds of bacteria, Serratia marcescens and Bacillus globigii -- both believed at the time to be harmless -- out into the fog, where they disappeared and spread over the city.
"It was noted that a successful BW [biological warfare] attack on this area can be launched from the sea, and that effective dosages can be produced over relatively large areas," concluded a later-declassified military report, cited by the Wall Street Journal.
Successful indeed, according to Leonard Cole, the director of the Terror Medicine and Security Program at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School. His book, "Clouds of Secrecy," documents the military's secret bioweapon tests over populated areas. Cole wrote:
Nearly all of San Francisco received 500 particle minutes per liter. In other words, nearly every one of the 800,000 people in San Francisco exposed to the cloud at normal breathing rate (10 liters per minute) inhaled 5,000 or more particles per minute during the several hours that they remained airborne.
This was among the first but far from the last of these sorts of tests.
Tests included the large-scale releases of bacteria in the New York City subway system, on the Pennsylvania Turnpike, and in National Airport.
Over the next 20 years, the military would conduct 239 "germ-warfare" tests over populated areas, according to news reports from the 1970s (after the secret tests had been revealed) in The New York Times, The Washington Post, Associated Press, and other publications and also detailed in congressional testimony from the 1970s. In a 1994 congressional testimony, Cole said that none of this had been revealed to the public until a 1976 newspaper story revealed the story of a few of the first experiments -- though at least a Senate subcommittee had heard testimony about experiments in New York City in 1975, according to a 1995 Newsday report.
A MYSTERIOUS DEATH
When Edward Nevin III, the grandson of the Edward Nevin who died in 1950, read about one of those early tests in San Francisco, he connected the story to his grandfather's death from a mysterious bacterial infection. He began to try to convince the government to reveal more data about these experiments. In 1977, they released a report detailing more of that activity.
In 1950, the first Edward Nevin had been recovering from a prostate surgery when he suddenly fell ill with a severe urinary-tract infection containing Serratia marcescens, the theoretically harmless bacterium that's known for turning bread red in color. The bacteria had reportedly never been found in the hospital before and was rare in the Bay Area (and in California in general).
The bacteria spread to Nevin's heart and he died a few weeks later.
Another 10 patients showed up in the hospital over the next few months, all with pneumonia symptoms and the odd presence of Serratia marcescens. They all recovered.
Nevin's grandson tried to sue the government for wrongful death, but the court held that the government was immune to a lawsuit for negligence and that they were justified in conducting tests without subjects' knowledge. According to The Wall Street Journal, the Army stated that infections must have occurred inside the hospital and the US Attorney argued that they had to conduct tests in a populated area to see how a biological agent would affect that area. In 2005, the FDA stated that "Serratia marcescens bacteria ... can cause serious, life-threatening illness in patients with compromised immune systems." The bacteria has shown up in a few other Bay Area health crises since the 1950s, according to The San Francisco Chronicle, leading to some speculation that the original spraying could have established a new microbial population in the area.
While Nevin lost his lawsuit, he said afterward, as quoted by Cole, "At least we are all aware of what can happen, even in this country ... I just hope the story won't be forgotten."
Another documented event was the St Louis MO spraying https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qo8CmOpotW4 where US Government Sprayed Toxic RADIOACTIVE Chemicals on unsuspecting Americans. IF US GOVERNMENT sprayed San Francisco and St. Louis, they are capable of anything....Thanks Andrew
First Comment from Gord Watson-
I read Leonard Cole's book "Clouds of Secrecy" back in 2000, when I was researching 'germ warfare', arising from my concern that Burnaby B. C. was about to be sprayed with live bacteria, as part of the program to - supposedly - eradicate the Gypsy Moth pest. I was one of 22 people who brought on a hearing to have the permit issued by the provincial govt. revoked. Plowing-through the propaganda put out to explain the rationale for spraying, it became clear to me that the whole thing was a cover story for something quite different.
As we wound our way through the formal week-long hearing, I met individuals who'd participated in the previous round, back in 1992, when North and West Vancouver were doused from on-high with the misted "soup" containing God-only-knows-what. The veterans of the 1992 Environmental Review Board hearing told me that, then, the Canadian Armed Forces had an observer of the rank of Major, who was also a physician, sitting-in as an observer.
In 2000, the ER Board ruled against us, so the spraying went ahead. In a Freedom of Information request I put in, I found documentary evidence proving that an Order in Council had been - literally - sitting in a drawer in the office of the Attorney General of BC ... typed-up, ready to be signed by the Lieutenant Governor, if the ERB panel had ruled against the provincial govt. They were going to spray, one way or another, and the review process was a charade. The next year, I went through much the same thing, only on paper, instead of a live panel. I warned the head of the ERB what had happened. To his dismay ... he found that the same thing was in place again : before he made his decision, an Order in Council had already been prepared to override his decision.
Pursuing the topic further, I found that the Response Bio-Medical Corporation, headquartered in Burnaby British Columbia, had been approved by the Defence Department of the United States as supplier of the RAMP device. For about $15,000, they sold a desktop-sized computer which can take in a swab of a biological substance, then determine in minutes if it contained one of about 100 materials. Anthrax being one of them.
The stuff which was sprayed over about a quarter of a million residents of Burnaby - without their consent - was brand-named Foray 48. The cover story, being : the live bacteria in it, ie. bacillus thuringensis kurstaki, would invade the bodies of Gypsy Moths, take over their intestines, causing them to die. Just a mere co-incidence that Btk happens also to be one of the "simulants" used in testing biological warfare games ? I think not
In early 2000, David Ingram had a tv show, narrow-cast, live, weekday mornings, from the studio of Shaw Cable in North Vancouver. Because my opposition to the spraying was making the newspapers, he invited me to come on it. In our discussion about the Gypsy Moth spraying, he mentioned that he remembered being sprayed with some kind of spray, as a child in Winnipeg. In the Green Room, before we went on live, he was happy to tell me that he had just signed a one-year contract for his show to go, live, from North Van to the Toronto area Shaw cable network. But the very next week after I was on ... Shaw cancelled his show. Just the meerest co-incidence ? I think not
Sidney British Columbia